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COURSE LECTURE NOTES:

| SCIENCE | MATTER | SOLAR SYSTEM | PLANETS | ATMOSPHERE | WIND and TEMPERATURE | HUMIDITY | WEATHERING | SOIL | SEASONS | MASS WASTING | SEASONS and CLIMATE | WIND WORK | STREAMS | LAND FORMS | GROUND WATER | CAVES/KARST | THE OCEAN | TIDES & ESTUARIES | WAVES | GLACIERS | GLACIAL LANDFORMS | VOLCANOES | VOLCANOES | CHON | PLATE TECHTONICS | EARTHQUAKES | ROCKS | CLIMATE CHANGE |

MAKE UP OF MATTER


Element = simplest form of matter, cannot be broken into anything simpler by normal means


Atom = smallest part of a element, it can be broken into smaller pieces by fisson(abnormal means).


Everything is made up of atoms. Parts of an atom are:
    Proton located in the nucleus of the atom, it has an atomic mass unit (amu) weight of 1, it has a positive (+) electrical charge of 1. The number of protons = the Atomic Number
    Neutron - located in the nucleus of the atom, it has an atomic mass unit (amu) weight of 1, it has no electrical charge, same size as a proton
    Electron located in orbit (or shell) around the nucleus, its weight is negligible, it has a negative electrical charge of minus (-) one
Compound = a combination of elements


    Stable Hard to break apart
    Unstable Easy to break apart
The mass of an atom is the combined ams of the protons and neutrons. The number of protons = the number of electrons in a neutral atom. An ion with one ore more electrons removed from or added to its outer orbit. It acts differently than an atom.

Sample problem: An atom of mercury has an atomic number of 80 and a total mass of 200 amu.
What are the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in this atom?

    Protons = 80 (atomic number)
    Electrons = 80 (electrons = protons in a neutral atom)
    Neutrons = 120 (number of neutrons = atomic mass number of protons)

      Mass = 200 amu
      Protons = 80 amu
      Neutrons = 120 amu

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