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COURSE LECTURE NOTES:

| SCIENCE | MATTER | SOLAR SYSTEM | PLANETS | ATMOSPHERE | WIND and TEMPERATURE | HUMIDITY | WEATHERING | SOIL | SEASONS | MASS WASTING | SEASONS and CLIMATE | WIND WORK | STREAMS | LAND FORMS | GROUND WATER | CAVES/KARST | THE OCEAN | TIDES & ESTUARIES | WAVES | GLACIERS | GLACIAL LANDFORMS | VOLCANOES | VOLCANOES | CHON | PLATE TECHTONICS | EARTHQUAKES | ROCKS | CLIMATE CHANGE |

CAVES/ KARST TOPOGRAPHY

Karst topography is a three-dimensional landscape shaped by the dissolution of a soluble layer or layers of bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite.

Cave - natural opening underground > 0.5 cm created from dissolving rock. If smaller than 0.5 cm water clings to the sides instead of flowing. A cave is a small ecosystem. Usually formed limestone or marble. The chemical process is adding acid to rock to form calcium, water and carbondioxide: The process works both ways.

CaCo3 + 2H+ <---->Ca+ + H2O +CO2
rock ...... acid .......... ion .. water ... gas
disolve<----->deposit
make caves <-----> form speleothems

    1. Formation and demise

    Steps in the formation and demise of a desolution cave:

    2. speleothems - cave forms